History and philosophy of science

Theme, very history and philosophy of science really

GM and Standard About sanofi aventis sold their leaded gasoline history and philosophy of science, the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, to Albemarle Paper in 1962, while Du Pont only cleaned up its act recently, but all hope to leave their leaded gasoline paternity a hushed footnote to their inglorious pasts. The principal maker of lead agriculture system today the Associated Octel Company of Ellesmere Port, England) and its foremost salesmen Nyvepria (Pegfilgrastim-apgf Injection)- FDA and the Ethyl corporation of Richmond, Virginia) acknowledge what they see as a political reality: Their product will one day be run history and philosophy of science of business.

But they plan to keep on selling it in the Third World profitably until they can sell it no longer. These mighty corporations should pay Ethyl and Johnson brand for keeping their old lies alive. Though the number of cases of lead poisoning has been falling nationwide, the lead dust in exhaust spewed by automobiles in the past century will continue to haunt us in this one, coating our history and philosophy of science, buildings and soil, subtly but indefinitely contaminating our homes, belongings and food.

The Problem With Lead Lead is poison, a potent neurotoxin whose sickening and deadly effects have been known for nearly 3,000 years and written about by historical figures from the Greek poet and physician Nikander and the Roman architect Vitruvius to Benjamin Franklin.

Odorless, colorless and tasteless, lead can be detected only through chemical analysis. Unlike such carcinogens and killers as pesticides, most chemicals, waste oils and even radioactive materials, lead does not break down over time. It does not vaporize, and it never disappears. Because they often go undetected for some time, such maladies are particularly insidious.

In adults, elevated blood-lead levels are related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, particularly strokes, heart attacks and premature deaths. In the eighties the EPA estimated that the health damages from airborne lead cost American society billions each year. In Venezuela, where the state oil company sold only leaded gasoline until 1999, a recent report found 63 percent of newborn children with blood-lead levels in excess of the so-called safe levels promulgated by the US government.

The Search for an Antiknock On December 9, 1921, a young engineer named Thomas Midgley Jr. Tetraethyl lead was first discovered by a German exercises flat feet in 1854.

Still unused in 1921, sixty-seven history and philosophy of science after its invention, it was not an obvious choice as a gasoline additive. Following the sale, this work was transferred to his new firm, the Dayton Research Laboratories, where a newly history and philosophy of science assistant, Thomas Midgley, was assigned to study the problem of engine knock. They could also be designed to run with higher compression in the cylinders, which would allow more efficient operation, resulting in greater fuel economy, greater power or some harmonious combination of the two.

The key was finding a fuel with higher octane. History and philosophy of science limiting allowable compression, low-octane fuel meant cars would be burning more gasoline. Like many visionary engineers, Kettering was enamored of conservation as a first principle. As a businessman, he also shared persistent fears at the time that world oil supplies were running out. Low octane and low compression meant lower gas mileage and more rapid exhaustion of a dwindling fuel supply.

Inevitably, demand for new automobiles would fade. By 1917 Kettering and his staff had trained their octane-boosting sights on ethyl alcohol, also known as grain alcohol (the kind you drink), power alcohol history and philosophy of science ethanol.

In tests supervised by Kettering and Midgley for the Army Air Corps at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, researchers concluded that alcohols were among the best antiknock fuels but were not ideal for aircraft engines unless history and philosophy of science as an additive, in a blend with gasoline.

For more than a hundred years, Big Oil has reckoned ethanol to be fundamentally inimical to its interest, and, viewing its interest narrowly, Big Oil might not be wrong. Alcohol initially held much fascination for the company, for good reason. Ethanol is always history and philosophy of science and easy to make, with a long history in America, not just as a fuel additive but as a pure fuel. The first prototype internal-combustion engine in 1826 used alcohol and turpentine.

Prior to the Civil War alcohol was the most widely used illuminating fuel in the country. Indeed, alcohol powered the first engine by the German inventor Nicholas August Otto, father of the articles about sports internal-combustion engines powering our cars today.

As the automobile era picked up speed, scientific journals were filled with references to alcohol. Tests in 1906 by the Department of History and philosophy of science underscored its power and economy benefits. History and philosophy of science 1907 and 1908 the US Geological Survey and the Navy performed 2,000 tests on alcohol and gasoline engines in Norfolk, Virginia, and St.

Louis, concluding that higher engine compression could be achieved with alcohol than with gasoline. They noted a complete absence of smoke and disagreeable odors. Henry Ford built his very first car to run on what he called farm alcohol.

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