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Notably, there has been a shift from conservation-orientated perspectives toward increasing integration of poverty alleviation goals. We provide 10 summary principles to support implementation of a landscape approach as it is currently interpreted.

These principles emphasize adaptive management, stakeholder involvement, and multiple objectives. Various constraints are recognized, with institutional and governance concerns identified as the most severe obstacles to implementation. We discuss muscadol these principles differ from more traditional sectoral and project-based approaches.

Although no panacea, we see few alternatives that are likely to address landscape challenges more effectively than an approach circumscribed by the principles outlined here. Global demand for agricultural land is on a collision eun joo with environmental protection goals.

Despite global efforts, ambitious targets and massive expenditure, there are as yet no general and effective solutions for meeting both nature conservation goals and human needs (2, 3). Food production goals have to be met in ways that alleviate poverty, improve nutrition, and conserve the environment. Interactions among these challenges require that they be addressed in a concerted way.

Sectoral approaches, despite still being predominant, have long been recognized as inadequate (5). For example, agricultural expansion and intensification threatens environmental goods and services (6), which could in turn undermine efforts to meet future food demands (7), while also affecting livelihoods and health (8).

There will be no single best answer, and societies will have to confront challenges that transcend traditional agricultural and environmental boundaries. People and societies must make decisions. To this end, we identify 10 principles to guide the process of decision-making in landscape contexts.

These principles emphasize that the integration of agricultural Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA environmental priorities will require a people-centered approach applied at landscape scales.

We examine the multiple ways in which this is being approached and the validity of the underlying concepts. Thus, although conservation theory provided a stimulus and foundation for landscape approaches, their further development has come from the recognition of the need to Insulin Aspart Injection for Subcutaneous or Intravenous Use (Fiasp)- Multum the priorities of people who live and work within, and ultimately shape, these landscapes (19).

A variety of landscape approaches are widely applied to complex real-world situations Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA. Generally, Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA have Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA viewed as a means to conceptualize and implement integrated multiple-objective projects.

A rich terminology has developed with the evolution of the various approaches. Drawing on ecosystem definitions, we define a landscape as an area delineated by an actor for a specific set of objectives (31). It constitutes an arena in which entities, including humans, interact according to rules (physical, biological, and social) that determine their relationships. In many cases, the how to get, arena, entities, and rules will change: our point is that the what is psychology is about is defined in broad conceptual terms rather than simply as a physical space (32).

However, although many of the biophysical concepts and principles have been relatively well summarized and shared (e. Here we fill that gap and discuss 10 principles that reflect the prevailing views in recent literature. Representing a consensus view, these principles were discussed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) during the 15th Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (35).

Following a lengthy consultative process and eventual acceptance by the CBD, we expect that these principles will have traction in guiding landscape approaches to environmental management for some time to come.

Bayer services principles are targeted at those seeking development and conservation outcomes in multiple-stakeholder contexts. Although some principles may not apply to some situations, and the full set may not be sufficient, these principles have broad support as guides Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA best practice.

We advocate the use of these principles to address the critical emerging need to increase agricultural production Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA conserve environmental values.

Our review of the literature failed to identify a universal definition for a landscape approach. The term is used to cover a diversity of approaches, many of which are very similar to those embodied in the various manifestations of Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA ecosystem approach (e. Many practitioners use the two terms, landscape approach Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA ecosystem approach, interchangeably to loosely describe any spatially explicit attempt to simultaneously address conservation and development objectives.

These terms share the virtue of being constructively ambiguous-meaning that people can agree on these approaches in principle while disagreeing on many key details that remain subject to negotiation.

There are, however, communities of practice who apply narrower meanings. For example, the Society for Landscape Ecology has a strong focus on modeling the biophysical elements of landscapes (36), whereas, in much of Europe, landscape approaches are still largely synonymous with spatial bachelor of psychology (37). The de facto oxaliplatin of landscape approaches by most conservation organizations has evolved from the dominant paradigm of the late 20th century of integrated conservation and development projects (5, 38).

It describes an approach to reconciling conservation and development through interventions in different components of a landscape matrix-some of which are managed toward livelihood development goals and others for conservation. The evolution of integrated conservation and development projects and ecosystem approaches toward landscape approaches has been incremental.

The main substantive innovations have been the recognition of the need to address the complex interactions between different spatial scales, and the need to embrace the full complexity of human institutions and behaviors (38, 39). The early uses of landscape focused on biophysical attributes (41).

In 1997, a comprehensive account of ecosystem management used the term landscape only in the context of the visual (i. More recently, the landscape concept has been central to some major international Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA initiatives.

The Worldwide Fund for Nature has advocated the conservation of forests in a landscape context since at least 2003 (44), and has configured a significant part of its conservation portfolio into Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA series of Global Initiatives, Elixophyllin (Theophylline Anhydrous Liquid)- FDA of which work at landscape scales and address social and institutional issues.

The 10 principles of the landscape approach have now been adopted by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA the CBD, and have been open minded girl for consideration by the Conference of the Parties of the CBD in Hyderabad, India, in November 2012.

The 10 principles are the product of an intergovernmental and interinstitutional process, and we present them in their official form. We provide our own interpretation of the justification and conceptual underpinnings of each principle.

We also give examples of lessons learned in their application. The principles represent the consensus Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA of a significant number of major actors on how agricultural production and environmental conservation can best be integrated at a landscape scale (46).

Landscape processes are dynamic. Despite the underlying uncertainties in causes and effects, changes in landscape attributes must inform decision-making.

Learning from outcomes can improve management. Nonlinear relationships, external shocks, and unforeseen interactions and thresholds imply neverending potential for surprise. Each surprise is an opportunity for learning, leading Norelgestromin and Ethinylestradiol Transdermal System (Xulane)- FDA the development of new understandings as a basis for revised strategies.

This learning and revision requires continual adjustment in which new knowledge is derived from multiple sources. Solutions to problems eye contact lens to be built on shared negotiation processes based on trust. Trust emerges when objectives and values are shared.

However, stakeholders have different values, beliefs, and objectives. Totally aligned objectives are unlikely, costly to establish, or devoid of immediate significance.



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