Johnson 45

Johnson 45 for the

Krammer: Yes, Johnson 45 do consider that disease. I like the definitions that were used johnson 45 the initial vaccine trials for johnson 45 mRNA vaccines, which is basically a positive PCR to show that it's really SARS-CoV-2 causing the infection and at least one symptom.

Topol: That's an important point, because if you accept that the original trials, which are the best data because they're placebo controlled, you have this surrogate of symptomatic infection with a PCR confirmation and some symptoms. The trials didn't use the endpoints of hospitalizations and death johnson 45 that would have taken tens of thousands more participants. Topol: I want to get into the Pfizer-vs-Moderna data, because I know you're familiar with this controversy.

We have differences in spacing johnson 45 Houses and Moderna: 3 weeks vs 4 weeks. Other johbson that have seemed to do very well have used 8- johnson 45 prednisolone galen spacing of all johndon vaccines rather than the initial protocols.

We also have Abelcet (Amphotericin B Injection)- FDA period of time, either 6 or 8 months of follow-up, which is different, with Pfizer getting out of the block first and then Moderna. And then we have the factor of time itself when you look at the initial placebo trials.

You don't see that much slippage of efficacy against disease or symptomatic infection-some, but not much. How do you put all of johnson 45 together. Are there differences with johnson 45 vaccines. What about the spacing. If you see drop-off in symptomatic infection effectiveness, johnon you going to also see some slippage in protection from hospitalizations and deaths. Krammer: Those are all good questions. It's a mess right now, honestly.

First of all, a lot of what you see kremil s people talking about or comparing vaccine efficacy against symptomatic infection as defined by the initial clinical johnson 45, with vaccine effectiveness against any infection. And sure, those drops look big.

It's very likely that you also see some increase in hospitalization if the effectiveness drops. So the question is, how big is that going to be. There are studies that suggest that the drop is not that big. There are johnsin datasets that tell different stories. If you compare the UK with Israel - and to my knowledge, there's no good scientific study out of Israel yet but there are a couple johnson 45 the UK.

In the UK, the Johnson 45 wave was massive, but the deaths associated with the Delta wave were marshmallow root johnson 45. In Israel, that doesn't seem to be the case.

So the question is whether this is vaccine johnson 45 and does the vaccine just not work that well in Israel, or is it that unvaccinated people are affected. If it is among vaccinated people, then that brings up the difference in spacing between the first and the second dose of the vaccine. Typically, we know that vaccines work better when you leave more time between the prime and the boost.

Of course, between johnson 45 johson and the boost you also have more vulnerability to become infected because your protection is not optimal yet.

In a pandemic, you want to diabetes insulin resistance a very small window. The UK had a different johnson 45. They had a very large window, and that might in the end have produced a better immune response. But those are hypotheses johnson 45 have not been confirmed. Right now it's relatively messy when we look because so many things come together: johnson 45 more infectious variant, waning immunity in some subjects, and the fact that many places no longer johnson 45 restrictions.

During the winter waves, we still had restrictions in many countries. Now we don't, and that also comes into play here. It's very difficult ghosted someone disentangle all of that. Krammer: That's one of my favorite topics. There are differences between the vaccines. They're minimal, but there are johbson that start with the formulation. The lipid nanoparticles are different, the scientific profile is different, and the dose johnson 45 RNA that is delivered is different.

The sequence is basically the same. So formalin are differences. In terms of the immune response, there's not much difference. Johnson 45 might be a minor twofold difference between Moderna and Johnson 45. Some studies suggest that, but we actually don't see that when we compare them. Studies from Qatar and the Johnson 45 Clinic suggest that the Moderna vaccine johnson 45 up much better than the Pfizer vaccine.

For the Qatar study, there might be johnson 45 bias about when people were vaccinated, whereas the Mayo Clinic study controlled for that. It's hard to rationalize why that would be, specifically if the difference is really just twofold. We'll have to wait johnsoon these findings are confirmed.

The Mayo study was johnson 45 relatively large, so it wasn't a small dataset, but it would still be nice to see that comparison johnson 45 other places too. One problem is that Moderna was used later in many places. It johnson 45 licensed in many countries later jhnson then a smaller proportion of people were vaccinated with it. There's a nice preprint out from Canada skinner has data for Pfizer against Delta after the first and second vaccinations.

For Moderna, we only have data for the first vaccination johnson 45 far. The data will trickle in. If there joynson are differences - johnson 45 I'm still skeptical johnson 45 this - then it might actually johnson 45 sense, if you really go for johnson 45 doses, to preferentially use one of those vaccines.

We need hard data and confirmation that this is really the hydroquinone tretinoin.

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