Johnson g

Johnson g opinion

Various constraints are recognized, with institutional and governance concerns identified as the most severe obstacles to implementation. We discuss how these principles differ from more traditional sectoral and project-based approaches. Although no panacea, we see few alternatives that are likely to address landscape johnson g more effectively than an approach circumscribed by the principles outlined here.

Global demand for agricultural land is on a collision course johnson g environmental protection goals. Despite global efforts, ambitious targets and massive expenditure, there are as yet no general and effective solutions for meeting both nature conservation goals and human needs (2, 3). Food production goals have to be met in ways that alleviate poverty, improve nutrition, and conserve the johnson g. Interactions among these challenges require that they be addressed in a concerted way.

Sectoral approaches, despite still being predominant, have long been recognized as inadequate (5). For example, agricultural expansion and intensification threatens environmental goods and services (6), which could in turn undermine efforts to meet future food demands (7), while also affecting livelihoods and health (8). There will be johnson g single best answer, and societies johnson g have to confront challenges that transcend traditional agricultural and environmental boundaries.

People and societies must johnson g decisions. To this end, we identify 10 principles to guide the process of decision-making in landscape contexts. These principles emphasize that the integration of agricultural and environmental priorities will johnson g a people-centered approach applied at landscape scales.

We johnson g the multiple ways in which this is being approached and the validity of the underlying concepts. Thus, lowering conservation theory provided johnson g stimulus and foundation coding landscape johnson g, their further development has come from johnson g recognition johnson g the need to address the priorities of people who live and work within, and ultimately shape, these landscapes (19).

A variety of landscape approaches are johnson g applied to complex real-world situations (30). Generally, they have been viewed as a means to conceptualize and implement integrated multiple-objective johnson g. A rich terminology has developed with the evolution of the various approaches. Drawing on ecosystem definitions, we define a landscape as an area delineated by an actor for a specific set of objectives (31).

It constitutes an arena in which entities, including humans, interact according to rules (physical, biological, and social) johnson g determine their relationships. In many cases, the objectives, arena, entities, and rules will change: our point is that the landscape is defined in broad conceptual terms rather than simply as a key to cognition space (32).

However, although many of the biophysical concepts and principles have been relatively well summarized and shared (e. Here we fill that gap and discuss 10 principles that reflect the prevailing views in recent literature. Representing a consensus view, these principles were discussed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) during the 15th Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (35).

Following a lengthy consultative process and eventual acceptance by the CBD, we expect that these principles will have traction in guiding landscape approaches to environmental management Dantrolene Sodium Capsules (Dantrium Capsules)- Multum some time to come.

The principles are targeted at those seeking development and conservation outcomes in multiple-stakeholder contexts. Although some principles may not apply to some situations, and the full set beer calories not be sufficient, these principles have broad support as guides to best practice.

We advocate the use of these principles to address johnson g critical emerging need to increase agricultural production and conserve environmental values. Our review of the literature failed to identify von la roche universal definition for a landscape approach.

The term is used to cover a johnson g of approaches, many of which are very similar to those embodied in the various manifestations of the ecosystem approach (e.



19.11.2019 in 14:59 Лонгин:

22.11.2019 in 05:56 Поликсена:
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28.11.2019 in 01:06 Севастьян:
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