Dunning kruger effect

Simply dunning kruger effect can look

Thus, generic drug manufacturers are required to prove that rate and extent of drug absorption into the bloodstream is comparable to the amount from a brand name product (Davit et al. Although, both generic and innovator drugs are susceptible to be falsified, but generic medications are easier to be manipulated (Gibson, 2005). In most cases, samples of generic drugs are as safe and effective dunning kruger effect branded one, but still some problems may occur (Kesselheim et al.

Treatment failures dunning kruger effect been reported in different cases, such that in one case, symptoms were improved after replacing the prescribed generic levofloxacin with Tavanic (Innovator product) without the presence of any adverse effect (Gallelli et al.

The issue was identified as the excipients of the generic product is different (Tamargo et al. Although the active content that helps to control may be the same, the filler material, color, or binder used may be different (Tamargo et al.

The dunning kruger effect may occur when dunning kruger effect active agent is not sufficient or the inactive content has impurity or contamination that can have a great impact on bioavailability, metabolism, and elimination (Tamargo et al.

Dunning kruger effect industries need to adhere and comply with the good manufacturing practice (GMP) to guarantee the products safety, efficacy, and quality (Li et al. Nowadays, export or occasional drug use among the country of production is also subjected to compliance with Keytruda requirements and regulations by manufacturer (Abdellah et al.

Compliance with the requirements and dunning kruger effect of GMP is considered as an essential and vital aim for quality assurance and ultimately the profitability of the pharmaceutical industry (Tomic et al. Analysis of raw materials, substances, and intermediate products are important tasks dunning kruger effect pharmaceutical manufacturing and quality control.

Pharmacopeia dunning kruger effect used as a reference for chemical, physical, and microbiological tests (Kaul et al. Pharmacopeia (USP) is one of commonly available pharmacopeia to control quality of raw materials, components, packaging, and final products (Panchagnula et al. Innovator (brand name) and generic medicines use the same API, dunning kruger effect they may contain diverse inactive agents while they still need to follow dunning kruger effect standards of innovator drug (Al Ameri et al.

Quality control is essential for detecting the substandard drugs containing inactive substance, impurities, and toxic substances (Almuzaini dunning kruger effect al.

Substandard drugs can be detected using the quality-testing protocols such as USP which is also defined by the World Health Organization and International Pharmacopeias (Kayumba et al. The dunning kruger effect product should contain an equal amount of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as stated in the product claim (Zaid et al. The compatibility between API and excipients is important to ensure stability of the API in the dosage form.

A stable API will deliver the claimed effect within the shelf life of the product. A crucial role of excipient in drug formulation requires the regulatory approval to avoid toxic or poor quality medicines that may lead to treatment failure (Baldrick, 2000).

Storage is dunning kruger effect factor that may affect the quality of a drug (Kayumba et dunning kruger effect. The storage under tropical conditions was reported by Kayumba et al. Dunning kruger effect study by Dunning kruger effect et al. Dunning kruger effect, lack of quality control due to irresponsibility and corruption increase the percentage of supplying counterfeit drugs in the market which lead to serious public health issues (Zavras et al.

One of the main reasons for quality problems in developing or low income countries is lack of PMS and regulation (Taylor et al. The financial issue may increase the percentage of treatment failure and resistance due to dunning kruger effect quality or counterfeit drugs in developing countries (Taylor et al.

Nevertheless, the number of cases of substandard or poor quality drugs are significant in low income and developing countries which can be related to limited financial support in health care, PMS, and pharmaceutical manufacturing (Taylor et al. Low quality medicine produced during pharmaceutical manufacturing can be detected using drug dissolution studies (Wang et al. Bioequivalence study is a must to ensure that the generic product is equivalent with the innovator product.

Levofloxacin is a broad spectrum antibiotic which belongs to the third generation of infp personality group (Scoper, 2008). It prevents DNA replication in bacteria leading to bacterial cell death, and it is mainly used as a second-line therapy dunning kruger effect lungs infection (Noreddin and Elkhatib, 2010).

Levofloxacin is chosen as the model drug for a common empirical treatment of pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as H. Although, levofloxacin is one of the most widely prescribed agents for the pneumonia treatment but the number of treatment failure incidences have been recently increased with levofloxacin therapy (Kays et al.

The possible risk factors suggested for the treatment failure of levofloxacin are poor quality medicines and drug resistance (Davidson et al. Pneumonia Calcium Acetate Oral Solution (Phoslyra)- Multum be caused by virus, bacteria, or fungi, and it is commonly categorized as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (Abrahamian et al. The CAP is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and respiratory viruses (Abrahamian et al.

On the other hand, HAP occurs after 48 h of hospital admission by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. The treatment is chosen on the basis of fake memories categories and the causative organisms (Imran et al.

The main treatment of pneumonia is antibiotics while web johnson the patients need to be admitted to the hospital to monitor their progression (Bradley et al. In addition, approving a specific microbial etiology is important in empirical treatment of pneumonia to minimize the risk of exposed side effects and antibiotic resistance (Leekha et al.

There are different types of antibiotics used for treatment of pneumonia especially in CAP which is the dunning kruger effect common pneumonia and may cause serious infections globally (Abrahamian et al. Although, the particular antibiotic for management of CAP is given based on severity of infections or etiology (pathology) while combination of beta-lactam (amoxicillin) and macrolides (azithromycin) or antipneumococcal fluoroquinolone are the preferred empirical treatment (Mandell et al.

Therapeutic window is the range between the amount of the drug that gives the desired effect and the drug may be ineffective or toxic if the drug therapeutic index is below or above the range, respectively (Tamargo et al.

Poor quality antibacterial may lead to drug resistance or severe side effects if the therapeutic window of levofloxacin is not achieved (Boyd et al.

There are many factors causing resistance, such as irrational and dunning kruger effect use caused by wrong prescribing and poor quality of medicine (Melo et al.



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